Kieran’s Our City, Our Town, 2 December 2021

Kieran’s Our City, Our Town Article,

Cork Independent, 2 December 2021

Kieran’s Cork Books for Christmas

It’s only a few weeks to Christmas. There are two publications of mine, which readers of the column might be interested in. In my new book Cork City Reflections (Amberley Publishing, 2021), Dan Breen and I build on our previous Cork City Through Time (2012) publication as we continue to explore Cork Public Museum’s extensive collection of postcards.

 People have been sending, receiving and collecting postcards for well over 150 years. They have always come in a variety of forms including plain, comedic, memorial, and of course topographical. Their popularity reached its zenith in the two decades before the outbreak of First World War when people used postcards for a variety of everyday reasons from ordering shopping to making appointments. Postcards have been described as the ‘social media’ of the Edwardian period as it is estimated that about one billion penny postcards were sold annually in the United States alone between 1907 and 1915.

The old postcards within Cork City Reflections show the city of Cork to be a place of scenic contrasts. They are of times and places, that Corkonians are familiar with. Many of the postcards show or frame the River Lee and the tidal estuary and the intersection of the city and the water. The postcards show how rich the city is in its traces of its history. The various postcards also reflect upon how the city has developed in a piecemeal sense, with each century bringing another addition to the city’s landscape.

Some public spaces are well represented, emphasised and are created and arranged in a sequence to convey particular meanings. Buildings such as a City Hall, a court house or a theatre symbolise the theatrics of power. Indeed, one hundred years ago in Ireland was a time of change, the continuous rise of an Irish cultural revival, debates over Home Rule and the idea of Irish identity were continuously negotiated by all classes of society. Just like the tinting of the postcards, what the viewer sees is a world which is being contested, refined and reworked. Behind the images presented is a story of change – complex and multi-faceted.

We have grouped the postcards under thematic headings like main streets, public buildings, transport, and industry. The highlight of Edwardian Cork was the hosting of an International Exhibition in 1902 and 1903 and through the souvenir postcards we can get a glimpse of this momentous event.

The Little book of Cork Harbour has been published by The History Press (2019). Cork Harbour is a beautiful region of southern Ireland. It possesses a rich complexity of natural and cultural heritage. This is a little book about the myriad of stories within the second largest natural harbour in the world. It follows on from a series of my publications on the River Lee Valley, Cork City and complements the Little Book of Cork (History Press, 2015). It is not meant to be a full history of the harbour region but does attempt to bring some of the multitudes of historical threads under one publication. However, each thread is connected to other narratives and each thread is recorded to perhaps bring about future research on a site, person or the heritage of the wider harbour.

In the book the section, Archaeology, Antiquities and Ancient Towers explores the myriad of archaeological finds and structures, which survive from the Stone Age to post medieval times. Five thousand years ago, people made their home on the edge of cliffs and beaches surrounding the harbour. In medieval times, they strategically built castles on the ridges overlooking the harbour.

The section, Forts and Fortifications, explores the development of an impressive set of late eighteenth-century forts and nineteenth century coastal defences. All were constructed to protect the interests of merchants and the British Navy in this large and sheltered harbour.

The section, Journeys Through Coastal Villages, takes the reader on an excursion across the harbour through some of the region’s colourful towns. All occupy important positions and embody histories such as native industries, old dockyards, boat construction, market spaces, whiskey making and food granary hubs. Each add their own unique identity in making the DNA of the harbour region. 

The sections, Houses, Gentry and Estates and People, Place and Curiosities, respectively are at the heart of the book and highlight some of the myriad of people and personalities who have added to the cultural landscape of the harbour.

The section, Connecting a Harbour, describes the ways the harbour was connected up through the ages, whether that be through roads, bridges, steamships, ferries, or winch driven barges.

The eighth section, Tales of Shipping, attempts to showcase just a cross-section of centuries of shipping, which frequented the harbour; some were mundane acts of mooring and loading up goods and emigrants but some were eventful with stories ranging from convict ships and mutiny to shipwrecks and races against time and the tide.

The section entitled Industrial Harbour details from old brickworks, ship buildings to the Whitegate Oil Refinery. Every corner of the harbour has been affected by nineteenth century and twentieth century industries.

The last section Recreation and Tourism notes that despite the industrialisation, there are many corners of the harbour where GAA and rowing can be viewed as well as older cultural nuggets such as old ballrooms and fair grounds. This for me is the appropriate section to end upon. Cork Harbour is a playground of ideas about how we approach our cultural heritage, how were remember and forget it, but most of all how much heritage there is to recover and celebrate.

Both Cork City Reflections (2021) & The Little Book of Cork Harbour (2019), and Kieran’s other books are available in Waterstones, Vibes and Scribes and Nano Nagle Place.

Captions:

1128a. Front cover of Cork City Reflections (2021, Amberley Publishing) by Kieran McCarthy and Daniel Breen.

1128b. Front cover of The Little Book of Cork Harbour (The History Press, 2019) by Kieran McCarthy.

1128b. Front cover of The Little Book of Cork Harbour (The History Press, 2019) by Kieran McCarthy.
1128b. Front cover of The Little Book of Cork Harbour (The History Press, 2019) by Kieran McCarthy.

Kieran’s Statement & Press, Odlum’s Building, South Docks, Cork, 27 November 2021

“The proposal is to be warmly welcomed. This area of South Docks has been derelict for many years and crying out for a new use. O’Callaghan Properties have proven they can deliver what they say in a timely manner and have been great to draw in large companies into Cork. And to be fair to them, they also take feedback on board. From my perspective I am appreciative so far of their notes in their press releases on their focus on blending in the old Odlum’s Building and finding a cultural use for it. I think such a building will be a very special part of this corner of South Docks – it can be the space to retain the historical memory of the docks, whilst also showcasing modern cultural life in Cork.

I am disappointed though for the grain silos – I think part of them should be retained to add character to the development. I know in my own submission I will be making, I will be focusing in on that and making general comments on the need for place-making. In the past I have been critical of the creation of non-descript glass boxes, which don’t add to any sense of place. But I am grateful that the developers in North and South Docks have done some great restoration work. There is certainly a better balance being struck in retaining the sense of place compared to previous decades. I will be reading carefully the O’Callaghan property proposal carefully once it becomes available to the general public”.

Press:

27 November 2021, “In his website about Cork city entitled Cork Heritage, Independent cork city councillor and historian Kieran McCarthy states that Odlums operated their flour mills venture at the docklands from 1965. It followed a long history of milling in Cork,  Looking back at the historic Odlums Mills in Cork, Looking back at the historic Odlums Mills in Cork (echolive.ie)

25 November 2021, “The proposal is to be generally welcomed. This area of South Docks has been derelict for many years and crying out for a new use”, said Cllr McCarthy, No glass box on our docks!No glass box on our docks! | Cork Independent

24 November 2021, Independent councillor Kieran McCarthy said the area proposed for development had been derelict for some time and that the proposals are to be warmly welcomed. He said he believed the redevelopment of the Odlum’s Building could be “a very special part of this corner of South Docks”. South Docks development a ‘further exciting phase’ in Cork’s developmentSouth Docks development a ‘further exciting phase’ in Cork’s development (echolive.ie)

McCarthy: Cork City Arts Strategy Open for Public Consultation, 27 November 2021

Independent Cllr Kieran McCarthy is calling upon the community and artistic sector across the city and especially in the south east to engage with the public consultation on the new Cork City Arts Strategy. The Arts Office of Cork City Council are now developing a new strategy to guide their work over the next five years. They want to ensure that arts and culture in Cork City is the very best it can be. To help them with thinking and planning, they would like to understand more about what people think and feel about arts and culture in Cork City now and to gather their hopes and ideas for the future. 

Cllr McCarthy noted: “Cork City Council has consistently invested in and supported the arts. There are many different tools at their disposal for the development of the arts. These include ideas generation, funding support, infrastructural support, resource and staffing support. Planning for the future, assessing the impact of our work to date and consolidating cultural infrastructure are all crucial elements to plan for going forward”.

“On Cork City’s public consultation portal under the survey section (www. consult.corkcity.ie/en/surveys) is a short survey and gives you the opportunity to share your views and inform what we do in the years ahead. The survey is confidential and contains short questions looking for public input. The survey will remain open until 6 December at 5pm”, concluded Cllr McCarthy.

Kieran’s Our City, Our Town, 25 November 2021

1127a. Headstone of Tadhg Barry at the Republican Plot, St Finbarr’s Cemetery, Cork, present day (picture: Kieran McCarthy)
1127a. Headstone of Tadhg Barry at the Republican Plot, St Finbarr’s Cemetery, Cork, present day (picture: Kieran McCarthy)

Kieran’s Our City, Our Town Article,

Cork Independent, 25 November 2021

Journeys to a Truce: The Green Flag of Tadhg Barry

On Saturday 19 November 1921 at 1pm the remains of Tadhg Barry were removed from Ballykinlar camp hospital, County Down where they had lain since the day of his tragic shooting, and placed into a motor car hearse and waited for transport to Dublin. The coffin, which was covered with a republican flag, was borne on the shoulders of the Lord Mayor of Cork, Donal Óg O’Callaghan, J J Walsh, Liam De Róiste, Commandant Michael Staines, Councillor Robert Day from Cork Corporation, a member representing the President of the Irish Transport and General Workers Union, and Commandant Seamus Woods, representing the 3rd Northern Division IRA. Patrick Barry, the brother of the deceased, was chief mourner.

The Cork Examiner outlines the journey of Tadhg’s body back to Cork. It outlines that there was a large contingent of laity present from Downpatrick, Newcastle, Newry, Dundrum, and surrounding districts and hundreds of the internees watched the solemn oppressive proceedings from behind the wire barbed wire position.

At the nearby Tullymurry Cross the funeral was met with motor cars of sympathisers, who accompanied it as far as Newry. Between this point and the camp a large body of armed military were met on the road. They marched past with arms reversed out of respect to the dead, but a few of them groaned and ‘boohed’ on seeing the Republican colours on the coffin. This was the only unseemly incident noticeable on the journey to Dublin. The funeral travelled onto Newry via a number of settlements. At each people lined the streets.

At Newry, the cortege passed through the town to the mournful peeling of its cathedral’s bbell. It was headed by the Sinn Féin flag and an advance party of volunteers of the Newry battalion IRA. After the advance party of the area came the Newry War Pipers band playing “Wrap the Green Flag around me” in semi-quick time. They were followed by a large body of volunteers. Behind the motor car hearse, there came a large number of priests from the parochial house and outside districts. Business was suspended within all the Roman Catholic establishments in the town.

Travelling on, the motor hearse was met at Drumcondra, Dublin by a huge procession consisting of representatives of Dáil Éireann. Irish public bodies and organisations, volunteers and trades bodies. The procession moved slowly to St Mary’s Pro Cathedral where the bodyguard of the volunteers remained until the morning. Shops closed early and train services were temporary stopped while the funeral procession passed through the area.

On the following morning after the subsequent mass in the Pro-Cathedral the remains of Tadhg were sent to Cork by train. They arrived on Saturday afternoon, 20 November at 2.55pm. Long before the train arrived at Cork’s Lower Glanmire Road terminus the area of the station was thronged with people especially members of the IRA company to which Tadhg was attached to.

Tadhg’s coffin was covered with a republican flag and was borne on the shoulders of volunteers. Companies of volunteers from various parts of the county formed up along MacCurtain Street and followed the coffin to the cathedral. As requested, the shopkeepers in McCurtain Street closed their premises when the cortege was passing. Many people wore mourning badges.

Thousands of the public lined the route. They were especially large groups of people of the various vantage points on the roof and road junctions as the cortege proceeded to Bridge Street, Camden Quay, Mulgrave Road and to the North Cathedral.

Tadhg’s remains were received by the Cathedral clergy and prayers were offered for the repose of the soul of the deceased. At the end of the requiem mass Bishop Cohalan noted that Tadhg’s death was very tragic and had evoked widespread sympathy; “I am sure that feeling is intensified and saddened with a very general conviction that we are on the eve of peace. There is a general consensus that the representatives in London – very able men – that they will secure peace, that they will soon bring to Ireland peace with honour and glory; it is tragic and pathetic to see one of the trusted leaders stricken down on the eve as we hope of peace”. After the Requiem mass, Tadhg’s coffin was then brought to be buried in the Republican Plot in St Finbarr’s Cemetery.

Tadhg’s inquest was adjourned until the middle of January 1922 by which time internees had been released for some time and the feelings aroused among the public by the tragedy had lessened. Frank O’Duffy was interned in Camp II, Ballykinlar, from January to December 1921 and was Prisoners’ Commandant in that Camp. He relates in his witness statement (WS665) in the Bureau of the Military History his disappointment with the inquest. He comments “Neither the sentry who fired the shot nor the sergeant nor the officer of the guard were present as witnesses. The only witnesses produced by the British were Colonel Little who gave evidence regarding the orders forbidding prisoners to approach the barbed wire, obeying sentries, etc…An R.E. officer gave evidence that we had made tunnels to try to escape, and a Corporal Collins whose evidence was of no importance”.

In his opinion, Frank highlights that the Coroner’s jury were equally divided on the question whether the sentry was justified in firing the fatal shot. Ultimately there was no reprimand for those involved in the shooting.

Event: Kieran gives a zoom talk on Nineteenth Century Engineer Sir John Benson on his Cork works ranging from bridges to waterworks to special sites such as the Berwick Fountain, Thursday 25 November, 6.30pm, with Engineer’s Ireland, Cork Branch, and the Friends of the Crawford. Booking details here: www.engineersireland.ie/listings/event/7906

Captions:

1127a. Headstone of Tadhg Barry at the Republican Plot, St Finbarr’s Cemetery, Cork, present day (picture: Kieran McCarthy)

1127b. Archivists Timothy O’Connor and Brian Magee at the launch of the Tadhg Barry exhibition at the Cork City and County Archives, Blackpool, November 2021 (picture: Kieran McCarthy)

1127b. Archivists Timothy O'Connor and Brian Magee at the launch of the Tadhg Barry exhibition at the Cork City and County Archives, Blackpool, November 2021  (picture: Kieran McCarthy)
1127b. Archivists Timothy O’Connor and Brian Magee at the launch of the Tadhg Barry exhibition at the Cork City and County Archives, Blackpool, November 2021 (picture: Kieran McCarthy)

Cllr McCarthy to give talk on Sir John Benson and Nineteenth Century Cork

Independent Councillor and local historian Kieran McCarthy gives a zoom talk on this Thursday 25 November, 6.30pm. The topic is on the life and times of nineteenth century engineer Sir John Benson on his Cork works ranging from bridges to waterworks to special sites such as the Berwick Fountain. The talk is hosted by Engineer’s Ireland, Cork Branch, and the Friends of the Crawford. Booking details are here: www.engineersireland.ie/listings/event/7906

The talk reflects on the enormous legacy of engineer and architect Sir John Benson. His work as County Surveyor, Cork Harbour engineer and then City Engineer in Cork from 1846 to 1873 was notable. He was concerned with not only developing a public road network, developing river dredging works programme but also engineering a water supply for the entire city, and ultimately improving the quality of life in the city and region.

Cllr McCarthy noted: “Much has been written on many of John’s well-known works over the years such as the beautiful Berwick Fountain, the red bricked English Market exterior, the striking St Patrick’s Bridge and his work on designing the North Cathedral’s western tower”.

“John was passionate about his work and about Cork. His array of works he was involved in show he was a hard-worker and a visionary for his time. He was also a pioneer in designing National Exhibition buildings in Cork and in Dublin in order to showcase the products of the country. He is also remembered for his extensive railway line work being the engineer for the old Cork-Macroom rail line and the architect for the first Cork-Dublin railway terminus, which existed before the current Kent Station, and part of which still survives and is currently being preserved”, concluded Cllr McCarthy.

Kieran’s Our City, Our Town, 18 November 2021

1126a. Tadhg Barry, c.1920 (source: Cork City Library)
1126a. Tadhg Barry, c.1920 (source: Cork City Library)

Kieran’s Our City, Our Town Article,

Cork Independent, 18 November 2021

Journeys to a Truce: The Fate of Tadhg Barry

Tadhg Barry has been written about by several historians over the past decades. Donal Ó Drisceoil’s new book on Tadhg’s life and times is now available in shops and is published by Mercier Press. Born in Cork city in 1880, Tadhg grew up in the Blarney Street area. Between 1899 to 1903, he worked as an attendant in the nearby Our Lady’s Hospital. After a short time working in London, he took up a job back in Cork with the newly-established Old Age Pensions Board in 1909.

Tadhg became an active member of the IRB and Sinn Féin. As a GAA member he was part of the group led by J.J. Walsh which restructured and rejuvenated the organisation in Cork. In 1913, Tadhg was a founding member of the Irish Volunteers in the city. He remained with the separatist wing after the 1914 split, and remained a core member. He was very engaged in the trade union activity in the city. In May 1915 Tadhg was one of a group who brought James Connolly to the city to speak at an Independent Labour Party meeting. He was also involved in Connolly’s January 1916 visit to Cork, when James spoke to circa thirty Volunteers on urban guerrilla tactics.

Tadhg also played a central part in the early stages of the renewal of the Irish Transport and General Workers’ Union (ITGWU) in the city. In November 1916 he was arrested during a speech to the Manchester Martyrs commemoration in Cork. In January 1917, he was sentenced by court martial to two years, but only served eight months. He was released following a hunger strike in early July 1917. On release Tadhg resumed regular journalism with a weekly column on Cork city politics, labour and culture under the title Neath Shandon Steeple for the Skibbereen-based Southern Star. He also commenced contributing a series of articles to the ITGWU’s Voice of Labour.

Tadhg was lifted as part of the German Plot arrest swoop in May 1918 and sent to Usk prison in England, until March 1919. Following his release. He became a full-time ITGWU organiser and Cork No. 1 (James Connolly Memorial) Branch secretary.

In the January 1920 municipal elections Tadhg was elected as alderman for the Sunday’s Well/Blarney Street area on a Sinn Féin/Transport Union ticket and took his seat in Cork City Hall for the historic election of Tomás MacCurtain as Lord Mayor.

A year later, in January 1921, when Cork Corporation gathered to elect a new Lord Mayor, the police arrested nine of the councillors, including Tadhg. He was removed to Ballykinlar internment camp in County Down, where he joined over 2,000 others, including many union activists. Tadhg engrossed himself in camp life, and is recorded as having delivered lectures on labour and other social concerns as part of the educational activities arranged by the internees.

One of the most detailed accounts of Ballykinlar is by Frank O’Duffy, who was interned in Camp II, Ballykinlar, from January to December 1921. He acted as Prisoners’ Commandant in that Camp from June until the general release in December, 1921. He relates in his witness statement (WS665) in the Bureau of the Military History that about the middle of November 1921 the British Commandant told prisoners that he had permission to release a number of prisoners (about thirty) on parole from the camps, and he supplied a lorry to bring them to the railway station.

When the group were entering the lorry outside the camp gate, some prisoners (including Tadhg Barry) were standing a few yards inside the gate of Camp II. The sentry in the block-house overlooking the gate asked them to step back from the gate. Tadhg did not. The sentry fired at Tadhg and shot him dead through the heart. Another prisoner (Con O’Halloran) dragged Tadhg’s body back a few yards, and an angry crowd quickly gathered, some of them shouting at and denouncing the sentry, who had them covered with his rifle.

Frank outlines that the threatening situation was saved by the presence of mind of Sean O’Sullivan who called on the prisoners to kneel down and say the Rosary. In an instant all was calm Father Burbage attended to Tadhg, and the doctors pronounced life extinct.

In the meantime, an officer had entered the sentry-box, and another sentry was brought to replace the man who had fired the shot. Frank describes the situation; “So impressive was the scene inside our camp, and the instant change from angry abuse to prayer, that the British M.O. (Captain Harlow, who was not friendly to us) complimented me next day on the remarkable discipline of our men, and our control over them. It would be impossible to describe the shock which the tragedy produced on the prisoners. Their nerves were at high tension. The truce and treaty negotiations had lasted many months and the hopes and prospects of early release had been more eagerly debated every day”.

Frank describes that Tadhg Barry had been very active and popular in all the camp activities; he had volunteered to act as hut leader in what was described as the “old men’s hut” a hut specially fitted up to accommodate 25 of the oldest men in the camp.

Frank Duffy articulates that many of the British officers seemed to regret the tragedy. Even when a British Sergeant attempted to remove the Tricolour flag from the coffin, the Adjutant (Lieutenant Joselyn) forbade him. They consulted Frank and the Camp about arrangements to be made; Frank notes: “They offered accommodation for the body in a building outside the camp (open to the public), and agreed that a group of 24 prisoners from the camp might accompany it to supply a guard until the funeral left on condition that they gave their word not to escape”.

Utter Disloyalist, Tadhg Barry and the Irish Revolution by Donal Ó Drisceoil (2021, Mercier Press, Cork) and is available in all good bookshops.

Event: Kieran gives a zoom talk on Nineteenth Century Engineer Sir John Benson on his Cork works ranging from bridges to waterworks to special sites such as the Berwick Fountain, Thursday 25 November, 6.30pm, with Engineer’s Ireland, Cork Branch, and the Friends of the Crawford. Booking details here: www.engineersireland.ie/listings/event/7906

Caption:

1126a. Tadhg Barry, c.1920 (source: Cork City Library)

Cllr McCarthy: Push to Phase out Herbicides in Public Areas

Independent Cllr Kieran McCarthy has welcomed Cork City Council’s Parks and Recreation Division undertaking of trials researching various alternatives to herbicides. The research during the past three years has concluded that the alternatives are less effective and more costly. The alternatives included steam jet application, electric strimmer and organic herbicides. The disadvantage of the alternatives is that the control increases from one operation per year up to four for any one of the alternatives. That said the alternatives are by far more environmentally friendly in terms of greater biodiversity and pollinator friendly amenity areas.

Cllr McCarthy noted: “The Marina and The Atlantic Pond areas are core areas I have had phonecalls on and questions on the use of herbicide. The Roads Department are cognisant of general concerns regarding the use of glyphosate and have been conducting trials in the last three years with contractors using non-glyphosate products. These trials have incrementally ramped up to the point that in 2021 these trials cover 140km of the public road network, i.e., 28% of the road network. In the coming months, an evaluation of these trials will be completed with respect to effectiveness and costs, with a view to expanding the overall percentage of network treated with non-glyphosate products in 2022”.

“Providing the trials are deemed successful, contractors with effective non-glyphosate products are available, and costs match Council budget allocation, it is the Roads Departments intention to proceed with non-glyphosate products in the future treatment of the City’s road network”, concluded Cllr McCarthy.

Online Event: Engineering 19th Century Cork: Exploring the Work and Times of Sir John Benson, 25 November 2021

Kieran McCarthy gives a zoom talk on Nineteenth Century Engineer Sir John Benson on his Cork works ranging from bridges to waterworks to special sites such as the Berwick Fountain.
Thursday 25 November, 6.30pm, with Engineer’s Ireland, Cork Branch, and the Friends of the Crawford. Booking details here: www.engineersireland.ie/listings/event/7906

Kieran notes: “The talk reflects on the enormous legacy of engineer and architect Sir John Benson. His work as County Surveyor, Cork Harbour engineer and then City Engineer in Cork from 1846 to 1873 was concerned with not only developing a public road network, developing river dredging works programme but also engineering a water supply for the entire city, and ultimately improving the quality of life in the city and region.

Much has been written on many of John’s well-known works over the years such as the beautiful Berwick Fountain, the red bricked English Market exterior, the striking St Patrick’s Bridge and his work on designing the North Cathedral’s western tower.

John was passionate about his work and about Cork. His array of works he was involved in show he was a hard-worker and a visionary for his time. He was also a pioneer in designing National Exhibition buildings in Cork and in Dublin in order to showcase the products of the country. He is also remembered for his extensive railway line work being the engineer for the old Cork-Macroom rail line and the architect for the first Cork-Dublin railway terminus, which existed before the current Kent Station, and part of which still survives and is currently being preserved”.

McCarthy: Skehard Road Improvement Scheme Phase 3 Nearing Conclusion, 13 November 2021

Independent Cllr Kieran McCarthy has welcomed the near conclusion of the approved upgrade works under the Skehard Road Improvement Scheme (Phase 3) between CSO Junction and Church Road Junction are proceeding as planned. In a reply to Cllr McCarthy at this week’s Council meeting by the Chief Executive, it was noted that the realignment of footways is currently underway and will be followed by resurfacing and lining of the realigned carriageway. The project is expected to be substantially complete by mid-December, with any weather dependent surface finishes to be completed as temperatures allow early in the new year.

Cllr McCarthy noted: “Locals and those who use the road have been very patient with this part of Skehard Road. And I know the works has also been a very real headache and frustration for those who live adjacent the works. It is one of the narrowest parts of the road and the removal of the road and footpath for such a long period of time due to the advent of COVID and the stoppage of works has been challenging. The last piece of the challenge to be met now is the winter weather, which may hamper the laying of tarmacadam before the end of the year. The works are a regular discussant point at the monthly local area meeting of local public reps and the Council executive to finish off the works as soon as possible”.